Wednesday, December 31, 2014

TCU was Robbed!

The 2014 TCU Horned Frogs Football Team stormed back in the national title picture with a vengeance after a few “down” seasons getting used to how the game is played in the Big 12. With NCAA Coach of Year Gary Patterson at the coaching helm and Breakout star and Heisman Trophy finalist QB Trevone Boykin leading the way, TCU surpassed all expectations, soaring to a 12-1 Record. A heart breaking, last-minute loss to Baylor was the only thing that prevented the proud TCU Football team from playing in the 2015 College Football Playoff. Yet, was TCU’s exclusion justified? Read ultimate sports fan Lee Enochs’ definitive case for TCU’s inclusion in the College Football Playoff and why Lee believes TCU was robbed!

Getting Smashed on New Year’s Eve

In about four hours the glittery “ball” will drop in Time’s Square (which is not so far from me now) and we will usher in another New Year. This past year was enigmatic for me, in that it was filled with very perplexing events and high drama. Against all odds, I managed to graduate from a fundamentalist Baptist seminary down in Texas. I am not sure how I managed to graduate from there without getting kicked out.

That did not happen, and I somehow got out of Texas relatively unscathed. Well, “unscathed” in a physical sense, since I was absolutely "pistol-whipped" emotionally from the fundamentalist jihad I experienced down there. I am not certain if I am the same person that I was when I went in that school.

Somehow, I lost something about myself during my six full years in the epicenter of Southern Baptist life. While I graduated at the top of my class, I managed to hit absolute rock bottom spiritually. So, much so, I feel like getting completely smashed tonight on New Year’s Eve.

But getting “smashed” is not a good idea. No, I won’t get “smashed” on booze tonight, but turn my heart towards God in prayer and forgive my fundamentalist enemies. New Year’s Day is all about new beginnings and new resolutions. 

My prayer is that no one will get smashed on booze tonight and end up smashing their cars against  an unsuspecting telephone pole. The sad and tragic reality is that someone will…

Today, I resolve to let my bitterness towards Paige Patterson and the Southern Baptist nightmare I endured down in the Bayou. There is nothing more I can do about it and I must now place my bad experiences in the South in the hands of God.

The time has come for me to move on and fight new battles, scale new heights and rise to new challenges. New Year’s Day is about New Beginnings and in Christ I am a new creation. The most important thing about being given life in Jesus Christ is that I can begin again, right here and right now.

"If anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation, old things have passed away and behold, new things have come" (2 Corinthians 5:17).

Hard Knocks and the Facts of Life: Why I am a Capitalist

Recently, I published my senior thesis, A Biblical Defense of Capitalism on This is an uninteresting topic to most people, so I doubt that very few people will purchase a copy. However, I wrote this thesis for myself and for my own thinking processes regarding economics, arguing for the basic ethical legitimacy of personal property rights and earning a profit. I wrote my thesis at the height of the “Occupy Wall Street” movement a few years ago.

In A Biblical Defense of Capitalism, I argue from the moral validity of owning your own property from the Mosaic Decalogue (Exodus 20:15). I essentially argue that the Scriptural injunctions against theft and coveting are predicated upon personal ownership of property and not communal ownership.

For if God intended all property to be communal and socialistic in nature, and then the prohibitions against stealing and coveting would be rendered obsolete. This is obvious, since the object or objects under consideration would be collectively owned. In other words, if all property was equally and socialistically owned by everyone, then it would be impossible to steal or covet another person’s “belongings,” since they are in fact communally owned.

I also argue that it is ethically justifiable to earn a profit and that legitimate profit earning is commendable.

I am not arguing for some sort of “exploitive capitalism” wherein an individual is recompensed unjustly for selling something. All I am arguing is that it is justifiable to earn a basic profit in selling or trading something.  I believe the time and toil one expends in producing the item or items for sale are commensurate with the profit earned in selling the item.

I learned economics the hard way. At one time, I lived a hand to mouth existence and was a drain on the American economy and my family and friends. I learned to respect basic capitalistic principles through hard knocks and the facts of life...

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

My Book is Now on Amazon!

Introducing my New Book!


                                                                                                                                                                                           by Lee Enochs


    Purchase my new book by clicking onto the following link:

Breaking Bad: When NFL Players do Stupid Things


While I do often comment on sports related things here on Theologian X, recently there have been enough bone head moves committed by NFL players for me to say something. Only those very close to me know that I am, in all actuality, a big sports fan.
 In fact, I have followed college and professional sports my entire life. In any event, I love sports and while I do not comment about athletics much on my various modes of media expression, I am still a passionate fan. Having said this, recent events surrounding the NFL have greatly angered me.
The first bad move I need to comment on is the absolutely uncool and intolerable behavior of Detroit Lions defensive tackle Ndamukong Suh, who maliciously stomped on the injured leg of Packers QB Aaron Rodgers leg.
I believe the video evidence demonstrates that Suh did this on purpose and deserves the suspension he received from the NFL for this coming weekend’s game against the Dallas Cowboys. Suh has done this kind of trashy and spiteful stuff before and deserves to be thrown out of the NFL forever. His cleating of Rodgers only hurts himself and the Detroit Lions.
The second NFL player I felt obliged to comment about is Johnny Manziel, who had a horrible rookie season with the Cleveland Browns and must make immediate and necessary changes or run the risk of getting booted from the NFL for good. Manziel has a lot of talent but is very immature and needs some sort of character transplant before next season if he has any hope of not riding the pine for the 2015 season.
The last NFL athlete I want to comment on is Johnny Manziel’s teammate Josh Gordon, who plays wide receiver for the Browns. This guy is also immensely talented at his position, and has been imparted incredible, God given ability, but is throwing his life and career away by bad decision making. Gordon has previously been suspended in college and by the NFL for illegal drug use and needs to somehow get a grip on his life lest he smokes his career away too…
All these NFL players I have mentioned have incredible talent. However, they are self-imploding and destroying their careers by unwise choices on and off the field and that is just tragic because they have been given immense gifts. My prayer is that each of these guys wakes up and get their lives together before it is too late. They have to learn that they have been given extraordinary opportunities that may only come once in their lifetimes…  

Sunday, December 28, 2014

Two Titans of the Christian Faith: Karl Barth and Martin Luther King, Jr.

   As I grow older and branch out from my extreme conservative Evangelical background, I have come to appreciate men such as Karl Barth and Martin Luther King, Jr., more and more. Both Barth and King were titans in their time and I am attempting to understand their respective theologies as I make my own mark in this world.

Should Conservatives Support Gay Marriage?

     I am a libertarian in my understanding of the relationship between the government and citizenry. Because of this, I wonder if I should be opposed to gay marriage. I am left wondering if we should be advocating government interference in any aspect of our lives....

Saturday, December 27, 2014

The Most Influential Person in My Life: Steve Jobs

While there have been many influential people in my life, none have influenced me like Apple Computer founder Steve Jobs. Although Steve has been gone now for a few years, his vision for technology and commerce made an indelible impact on the direction of my life. I want to be a transformative person like Steve Jobs, who changed the world, one personal computer at a time.

My First Book Should be on Amazon Soon!

   As many of you know, I am working on a book on the Southern Baptist Convention. It has been a massive undertaking. In the process of figuring out how to publish my book, I decided to publish my Senior Thesis, "A Biblical Defense of Capitalism" in order to see how the publishing process works. It should be for sale in the next few days!

Friday, December 26, 2014

News on My New Book!

                                       January 15, 2015 Release Date!

Over the next few weeks I will be working around the clock on my new book on the Southern Baptist Convention. I am sorry if the quality and quantity of posts on this blog are not up to their normal level. The target day for the completion of my book is January 15, 2015. I will fill you in on more details as they come in.

I have been writing and rewriting this book for several months and want to give an accurate depiction of what happened to me at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary and why I played a pivotal role in exposing a major scandal at SWBTS this past Spring.

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Why I really don't do Christmas

Why I Really, Really Don’t Do Christmas

“These are the shadows of things that have been”

              The Ghost of Christmas Past
                         (A Christmas Carol) 

I am sorry; I really just don’t do Christmas. I know that is heresy and even blasphemous to you southerners and sentimentalists out there, but I really just don’t do Christmas, if “doing Christmas” means fighting and almost killing my neighbor for a parking spot at the mall for that one last materialist creature comfort that will be thrown in the trash come February…
Call me a Grinch, Scrooge, Goblin or whatever, but I just am not very interested in perpetuating wanton consumerism and greed.
Now, I can relate to the “Jesus is the reason for the season” Christian motif. I am fine with that, if that is what Christmas really means.  However, I am just not sure if “Christmas” is anything but a display of abject materialism.
To me, if Christmas “means” anything at all, it means that Jesus the Son of God was born into this world. He was born to die on the cross for my sins and rise again from the dead. He did all that if I would simply repent and believe in His name.
As a conservative, I also get that celebrating Christmas means honoring tradition and family to so many Americans, but to me it only brings back horrible memories of alcoholic relatives getting liquored up and acting badly.
So, for me and probably many other Americans, the holiday conjures up the “ghosts of Christmas past.” That is why many people are depressed during the holidays.

Monday, December 22, 2014

My Biggest Blogging Mistake

         I made a colossal and unmitigated mistake not standing up for the police in the Ferguson and NYC Police Controversies 

"Know this, my beloved brothers: let every person be quick to hear, slow to speak, slow to anger."

                                     James 1:19

    I made a mistake. No, "mistake" is too insignificant word for what I have done recently. I failed exceedingly in a recent blog post I wrote about the Ferguson and New York City Police controversies. In fact, major mistakes were made on my part and I am deeply mournful for my failings in this respect.

You see, for my entire life I have been a conservative. I am a 'conservative's conservative" and have always tried to stand up for law and order and the rule of law in American society. However, in the case of the controversies in NYC and Ferguson, I got caught up with the excitement and rushed to judgment too quickly on these issues. 

In fact, I allowed peer pressure and the fact that I am trying to make friends and influence people in a very secular and liberal college town to cloud my better judgment. The Bible says, "A fools voice is known through a multitude of words," (Ecclesiastes 5:13), and I have said far too much without checking the facts in order to solicit readership for this blog.

I know want to go down on record that while I do believe that there is justification to be angry about the Eric Garner and Michael Brown shootings, I now know that I spoke far too quickly and rushed to a verdict without doing my my due diligence and own private investigation before saying that these two young men "were murdered" by the police. I simply do not know if this is the case. I need to be far more careful with what I write here on this blog.

Since the beginning of October, over 25,000 people have read my blog and profile page on Google, and I have an obligation before God to speak and write about truthful things. I was far from being accurate in what I wrote and I am sorry.  I am crushed beyond belief for my failings in this respect and my heart breaks and mourns the loss of these two police officers who were killed on the job in NYC.


Enemy of the State

Why the Best Government is the Least Amount of Government

by Lee Edward Enochs
Executive Director
 Princeton Conservative Club

Recently I started the Princeton Conservative Club a society for like-minded conservatives for the purpose of fellowship, discuss, debate and changing our world through the promotion of conservative economic and political values. I figure if I am really going to be here in the Princeton community, I must contribute the best way I can by organizing a club for like minded people, because that is what I do.

I have a confession to make; I am an enemy of the State. Now, don’t get me wrong I love America and believe in our form of constitutional government. But I believe, without reservation, that we, the people of the United States of America, have become far too dependent on the State to meet our basic needs.

I am an “enemy of the State” in the respect that I reject the socialistic mentality now in vogue in contemporary American society that says the federal government knows best how we should live our lives and spend our money.

I am a vocal “small government” proponent of the “minimal state” concept of government in political philosophy that essentially argues that the State’s only legitimate function is the protection from various kinds of assault, theft, breach of contract and fraud.

I believe the only legitimate institutions of the federal government are the judicial branch to adjudicate the law, law enforcement to enforce these laws within the boundaries of our State, and the military to protect us from threats from the outside.

In a broader sense, I also believe in the legitimacy of the existence and function of various civil service departments such as paramedics, fire departments and prisons. Other than this, I believe in limiting federal agencies and reducing the means by which the State is involved in our daily lives.

I believe “the leviathan” that is the current American federal government is far too big, far too intrusive and is grossly out of control. I am an advocate of introducing an amendment to the US Constitution that forces the federal government to reduce all debt and eliminate the national deficit. 

I believe the best government is the least amount of government. I believe in absolute libertarian freedom and that we as humans function best by determining our own economic well-being without the long arm of the State being involved in every aspect of our lives.

I believe in self-determinism, that we are the masters of our own economic and political destiny. I want to live free from government intrusion in my personal, private, sexual, economic and political life and believe I, not the State, knows best how to live and manage my life. I do not look to the federal government to solve my problems and neither should you.

Each and every time we look to the State to meet our needs, we give and equal amount of our freedom and self-determinism away and allow the federal government to stick its hands in things it has no business being in in the first place.
We are the masters of our own destiny and the captains of our own fates and with the help of God; we can limit the power of the State by working hard towards our own prosperity and self-sufficiency.

I believe in the political philosophy known as “Libertarianism” that argues that liberty and self-determinism should be our primary existential objectives. I want to see us maximize our autonomy, freedom of choice and I advocate the role of our individual freedom in all matters.

I believe dependency on the State to meet our basics needs is a form of slavery.
I want to live free or die hard.

In this respect, I am an “Enemy of the State.”

Sunday, December 21, 2014

The Dogs of War

"Cry 'Havoc!', and let slip the dogs of war."

Act 3, Scene 1, line 273 of William Shakespeare Julius Caesar:

   I have spent the greater part of my adult life embroiled in one controversy or another. The problem with controversy is that once it has begun, the person who starts it, has no control of its outcome. Like one who cuts open a pillow case full of feathers and sets them to the wind, the individual who sets them to the wind, does not have control where these feathers land.

This was the case with the muslim controversy at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. While I was the initial student that raised my concern about Paige Patterson's bending of the rules to allow non-Christians to attend a Southern Baptist seminary, I was not pleased with much of what happened as a result of the issue becoming part of the national news.

That is the problem with starting controversy, there is the possibility of letting slip the dogs of war...

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Welcome to the Jungle

   Big Things in Store for 2015

"Welcome To The Jungle"

by Guns N' Roses

Welcome to the jungle
We've got fun 'n' games
We got everything you want
Honey, we know the names
We are the people that can find
Whatever you may need
If you got the money, honey
We got your disease

 In the jungle
Welcome to the jungle
Watch it bring you to your
knees, knees
I wanna watch you bleed

Well, the end of 2014 is fast approaching, and while it has been a good year overall for me (I got the heck out of the South), I have big plans for 2015.

The contemporary music artist "Pitbull" has a new album coming out called "Globalization." I can relate to this incentive. I want to go "global" with my blog, podcast, books and other venues and have some major ideas to gain a large audience for my unique brand of Libertarian radicalism.
I plan to bust out and go big in 2015. Much of my plans for launching myself into the mainstream media involves nearby New York City. Frank Sinatra once said, if I can make there, I can make it anywhere!

Welcome to the Jungle Mr. Enochs, Welcome to the Jungle....

Thursday, December 18, 2014

Is God Dead?

                                The Death of God in Postmodern America


                                        "The fool has said in his heart there is no God"
                                                                                    Psalm 14:1

“But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear.”

                                                                                                     1 Peter 3:15

We live in a time period that many scholars and astute observers of our chaotic age have called, “The Postmodern era of Western Civilization.” That is, the vast majority of people now living within the North American hemisphere no longer believe in the notion of absolute truth and morality. In the face of this ethical and propositional wasteland, the Church of Jesus Christ has been commanded by God to make disciples of all nations (Matthew 28:19-20, Mark 16:15, Luke 24:44-47, John 20:21 and Acts 1:8).

In order to effectively reach our relativistic and pluralistic society with the saving Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ, his followers must also heed the Biblical mandate to engage in the activity of Christian Apologetics. The term “Apologetics” is taken from the Greek word “Apologia” meaning to “give a defense” of something through rational argumentation.  The New Testament uses the term “apologia” eight different times in New Testament.  In Acts 22: 1, the Apostle Paul said, “Brethren and fathers, and fathers hear my defense which I offer to you now." In Acts 25:16 Paul said, “Is it not the custom of the Romans to hand over any man before)the accused meets his accusers face to face and has an opportunity to make his defense against the charges?” In 1 Corinthians 9:3 Paul wrote, “My defense to those who examine me is this."

In Philippians 1:7 Paul wrote “Since both my imprisonment and in the defense and confirmation of the Gospel you are all partakers of grace with me.”  And in 2 Timothy 4:16 , the Apostle Paul writes, “At my first defense no one supported me but all deserted me, may it not be counted against them.”  Not only did the Apostles of Jesus Christ command that Christians engage in the role of apologetics, defending the essential truth claims of the historic Christian faith, but you also see the Patristic Church Fathers obeying this call and command as many of these immediate successors to the Apostles defended the historic Christian faith against the false teachings that raged against the early Church.  Church history is replete with examples of the Church Fathers defending the Faith against such heretics as Marcion, the Gnostics and Dynamic Monarchians. 

Great Christian leaders of history such as Tertullian, Athanasius and Augustine all were faithful in their time and defended the essential truths and body of non negotiable truths of the historic Christian Faith. Similarly, Christians in our contemporary postmodern world are called to make a defense of the faith and to refute the objections of the unbelieving world around us. We are called to stand up against all opposition and proclaim that Jesus Christ is Lord to the Glory of God the Father (Romans 10:9-10 and 1 Corinthians 12:3-4).

In light of the Christian's responsibility to engage in the mandate to defend the faith, what should the concerned Christian do with the argument that "God is dead?" While the "death of God" school of theology and philosophy is no longer a strong movement in America, the notion of God's death is very much with all of us in the United States.

That is, while many Americans profess to believe in the conception of the Christian God, they live as functional atheists in the respect that their faith has no impact on their decision making and other relevant parts of their lives. "God is dead, and we have killed Him," is a famous comment from long ago.

It may seem outlandish to many, but if we are realistic about the spiritual and ideological state of American society, we would have to admit that the historic Christian conception of God is no longer the prevailing ideological and epistemological driving point of the vast majority of Americans. While we may profess to have a "personal relationship with God" or whatever, we must admit, that abject materialism and secularism are the more dominant worldviews in our society than the traditional conception of God.

Is God dead? In reality, no, God is not dead. He is very much alive. In God, we live and move and have our very being. God is the source of our very existence. However, the traditional conception and notion of God in American culture is very much dead. We have replaced God with the "gods" of abject materialism and creature comfort. While God is very much real, we have killed the conception of God as a cultural reality with our greed and crass consumerism. We must repent as a collective society and turn back to the God of historic Christianity before it is too late. This God sent His only begotten Son to die on the cross and rise again that we might live with Him in glory forever.

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Faith from the Ashes

                                 Burned by the fire of fundamentalism 

" Eye has not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him" (1 Corinthians 2:9),

Dear Family and Friends,

My semester here in Princeton, New Jersey is fast drawing to a close. My finals are done and now, all that is left is a few papers that I think I will be able to finish by the December, 19 deadline. It has been a very hard year for me. 

Although I finally graduated and earned my elusive B.A. degree, it was not without a very deep and anguishing personal price. My time there at that Southern Baptist school and within fundamentalist Evangelicalism has charred and scarred me beyond recognition. I have been burned by the fire of fundamentalist fervor and I do not where my home is. I am lost and do not know if I can ever get back to where I once belonged...

However, despite my anguish and deep wounds, I still believe. I am still a Christian and believe in Jesus Christ and the historic and most holy Christian faith with all my heart, soul, mind and being. Despite being burned by the fundamentalist flame and the sin of my own undoing, I still believe in Christ and want to follow God. I still believe in the cross of Christ and cling to Him now. I love you all. I am still on the path to heaven, I hope...

Merry Christmas,


Lee Edward "Ed" Enochs


It was the day the world went wrong
I screamed til my voice was gone
And watched through the tears as everything
Came crashing down
Slowly panic turns to pain
As we awake to what remains
And sift through the ashes that are left behind

But buried deep beneath
All our broken dreams
We have this hope:

Out of these ashes... beauty will rise
And we will dance among the ruins
We will see Him with our own eyes
Out of these ashes... beauty will rise
For we know, joy is coming in the morning...
In the morning, beauty will rise

So take another breath for now,
And let the tears come washing down,
And if you can't believe I will believe for you.

Cuz I have seen
The signs of spring!
Just watch and see:

Out of these ashes... beauty will rise
And we will dance among the ruins
We will see Him with our own eyes
Out of these ashes... beauty will rise
For we know, joy is coming in the morning...
In the morning...

I can hear it in the distance
And it's not too far away.
It's the music and the laughter
Of a wedding and a feast.
I can almost feel the hand of God
Reaching for my face
To wipe the tears away, and say,
"It's time to make everything new."

"Make it all new"

"Beauty will Rise"
Steve Curtis Chapman

Steven Curtis Chapman: Beauty Will Rise

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

No Kings, Dictators or Despots!

Why I have been blogging and taking bold positions

by Lee Edward "Ed" Enochs

Throughout the annals of human history there have been certain individuals who have “thought outside the box” and have pushed the human race forward with innovative thinking and bold actions. The limits of time and space prohibit me from chronicling in depth for you the prodigious mental and physical efforts of these unique transformative individuals who have radically altered the course of human history.

However, pick an era of world history and you will see a bold woman or man who dared to challenge conventional wisdom and the prevailing outlook of their times. Whether it was Confucius, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Amelia Earhart, M.K. Gandhi, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Stephen Hawking, Martin Luther King, Jr., Mother Theresa or Steve Jobs, these bold pioneers of human history pushed us forward and changed our world for the better and forever. As I grow older and the time of my departure from this earthly sphere draws near, I have decided to buck the conventional Evangelical and suburban American wisdom and actually attempt to make a difference in this great big world we live in. I believe there is more to human existence than making a bunch of money so I can live in a big mansion and take luxury cruises to the Bahamas’ and live out the rest of my days in a mundane suburban existence.

 I want to radically change the world and in this era of specialization, I realize now that I cannot change the world in every area, so I have decided to focus on a few important matters of importance to human existence. I have come to believe, after decades of “wilderness wandering” and contemplation about what contributions I can make for the betterment of collective society, I have come to believe that I want to be known as an individual who stood, with great vehemence, for human autonomy and personal freedom. That is, I want to stand for our right as human beings to be our own decision makers in the world of politics, economics and religion. I want to stand for a brand of conservatism that stresses fiscal and personal independence from church and state.

I have come to believe that pure libertarianism, the belief that human freedom and liberty from external control is the principle objective of human existence. I have come to believe that our personal autonomy and freedom of choice in the areas of economics, politics and religion is the very thing that all of us need to be truly authentic human beings. The maximization of our personal freedom and autonomy from government control and tyranny is my primary reason for existence. It is my mission statement and the reason why I live, move and have my being. I want us to be truly free that we might live, succeed and worship God without being controlled by anything but the dictates of our own conscience.

This is why I have been blogging and shooting these odd little videos, I am on the verge of launching myself into the world of ideas and the public arena. I want us to give libertarianism and true freedom a choice. I do not want to be controlled or regulated by the state or any given religion. This is my stand, for freedom and for autonomy from external control.

I have come under the sway of freedom and have become drunk on the wine of liberty. My goal is for the maximization of our autonomy from government and religious coercion and control. I believe for women and men to be truly free we must take a stand and free ourselves from dependence on anyone but ourselves. Give me liberty or give me death. Let her or him who has ears let them hear! I know that very few people take me seriously now, but what the heck! Maybe something will happen and by the grace of God, I will change the world. The world has been changed by dreamers that few believed in during their lifetimes, but now their ideas rule the world!

Monday, December 15, 2014

Announcing My New Book: The Southern Baptist Blues

Written in the style of Jack Kerouac's On the Road, it chronicles my journey into the insanity and heart of darkness that is the Southern Baptist Convention and how I barely made it out alive. A riveting and hilarious look at dysfunctional and autocratic fundamentalism in America's largest Protestant denomination.

The Southern Baptist Blues is a book about a man who left a houseboat in Hawaii and wound up deep in the heart of the southern Bible Belt at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, one of the most absurd and bizarre institutions of " higher learning" in America. It chronicles how he covertly stood up to fundamentalist leader Paige Patterson and while he lost that battle, he regained his authentic soul...

Stay tuned for the details and hang on to your seats folks, because The Southern Baptist Blues will pull no punches in exposing the lunacy presently transpiring at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary and throughout the Southern Baptist Convention.


  I promise you it will be one of the most controversial books of 2015 in the Southern Baptist world. Wait and see, it should be released to the public this coming January! It will give my side of a controversy that took made the national news this past summer!

                                                          Paige Patterson and his dog

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Congratulations to Marcus Mariota: Hawaii's First Heisman Winner

I just wanted to give the University of Oregon's Marcus Mariota his props for being the first native Hawaiian to win the the Heisman Trophy, College Football's most coveted award given to the best player of a given season.

I have spent a lot of time in Hawaii myself and have found the Islands great and the people even greater. I will never forget my eight separate trips to the Hawaiian Islands from 2006-2010. I actually lived there for a year in 2006-2007 and had the time of my life. My dad spent the last twenty years of his life in Hawaii and have fond memories of my great visits and escapades in those majestic islands in the South Pacific. 

Saturday, December 13, 2014

An Apology to Law Enforcement in America


Dear Friends,

    Today I received a message from a long time friend who works in the law enforcement industry, that simply said, "You are no friend to law enforcement." I was stunned by this, because all of my life I have tried to be a faithful American and obey the laws of the land. I have always sided with law and order and believe I owe the vast majority of law enforcement officers in America an apology. I am sorry if one of my recent blogs on the Eric Garner case in NYC in any way could be perceived as being against police officers. I believe the vast majority of law enforcement officers in America are doing a great job at a very difficult task. I am sincerely sorry for my comments.

Sincerely in Christ,

Lee Edward Enochs

Finals are almost here!

 Dear Friends,

It has been a wild year and it is almost over. I won't be blogging much for the next week because I have finals and three papers due this coming week! It has been a blessing to contribute to this blog and I have some great things planned for the coming year including the launch of my new podcast!

Have a great week!

Sincerely in Christ,

Lee Edward Enochs

Friday, December 12, 2014

Should America Torture Its Prisoners?

Broken Trust: Why America disgraced itself in the Torturing of Detainee’s

If the foundations are destroyed, what can the righteous do?
                                                   Psalm 11:3

by Lee Edward Enochs
Executive Director
Conservatives for California

Today I would like to focus on the recent stunning revelation that just six days after the September 11, 2001 attacks orchestrated by Osama Bin Laden and his Al Qaeda operatives, President George W. Bush signed a secret order to capture and imprison terrorists, and many of these alleged operatives were tortured by the C.I.A.
New York Times writers James Risen and Matt Apuzzo reported on the front page  of their newspaper yesterday that these detainees were “chained to walls and forgotten, froze to death on concrete floors and were “water-boarded” until they were rendered unconscious.” (See NYT article, "C.I.A. First Planned Jails Abiding by U.S. Standards, 12-11-14).
I am very disturbed about this and have a great deal of passion about this matter, for I believe this is no way for America to act.
I believe these actions clearly violate the US Constitution that guarantees in the fifth and eighth amendments that those tried by the US government will be rendered “due process of the law,” and that they will not experience “cruel and unusual punishment.”
The fact that the American government was involved in torturing people is unconscionable to me because our nation is predicated upon civil liberties and the rule of law.
I know that these alleged Al Qaeda operatives are not American citizens, but I believe that every person that is treated by the long arms of America’s justice system should be afforded the same constitutional rights as anyone else that is being rendered adjudication by our judicial process.
 I do not care if these alleged criminals were Al Qaeda operatives or not, since each person under the Constitution is innocent until proven guilty.
This “presumption of innocence” is the very bedrock foundation of American justice and should be afforded to all who is judged by it. I believe in the principle of Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat (the burden of proof is on he who declares, not on he who denies).
Irrespective of how reprehensible these alleged operatives acted, they deserved and deserve their day in court and should be afforded the same rights of a fair trial anyone else is who is being adjudicated by the American judicial system.
I believe there should be no exceptions to this since America is supposed to be government of the people and by the people and guided by the highest moral principles and the supposed rule of law.

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

Don't Mess with Texas (What I Liked About the Lone Star State)

  I think it is time that I wrote something about what I found good about living in Texas. I lived in the Lone Star state for almost seven years. I worked, scratched and clawed my way to earning a degree at a Southern Baptist college that clearly has some issues.

However, despite my intense fear and loathing for much of what I encountered at that Baptist college, living in Texas was not all bad.

In fact, I found most of the people outside Southern Baptist fundamentalism to be decent and honorable people.

I worked at a church that was very good to me. The people there were amazing and adopted me as one of their own. 

I often feel bad about writing on my issues with the Southern Baptist Convention, because lost in my campaign against the SBC, is the great time I had with people outside of fundamentalism.

I also made friends with several people inside that Southern Baptist school, so my time there was not all bad.

I owe all my friends at that school and outside of the SBC a word of apology. I have not forgotten your acts of kindness towards me nor your friendship.

 I do not want you to get caught up in my world, so I have not included you in my posts on this blog. Thanks to all those who reached out to me. I would not have made it without you!

As for Texas, I liked most of it. Most of all I loved that Texas had no state income tax. The BBQ at Railhead was amazing as was joking around with my friends about the TCU Horned Frogs and those perennial under- achievers, the Dallas Cowboys.

I will never forget those good people I met in Texas.

Thanks for the memories.

Monday, December 8, 2014

How Morrissey Helped Me Survive a Fundamentalist Baptist College


"There Is A Light That Never Goes Out"

By the Smiths
(Lyrics by Morrissey)

Take me out tonight
Where there's music and there's people
Who are young and alive
Driving in your car
I never never want to go home
Because I haven't got one anymore

Take me out tonight
Because I want to see people
And I want to see life
Driving in your car
Oh please don't drop me home
Because it's not my home, it's their home
And I'm welcome no more

And if a double-decker bus
Crashes in to us
To die by your side
Is such a heavenly way to die
And if a ten ton truck
Kills the both of us
To die by your side
Well the pleasure, the privilege is mine

There is a light and it never goes out
There is a light and it never goes out
There is a light and it never goes out

 I have a major public confession to make; the famous British pop singer with an ambigious sexuality named; Morrissey helped me get through a weird, little Baptist college located deep in heart of Texas.

In fact, I think I would not have made it if were not for a secret box set of the complete songs of Morrissey and the Smiths that I bought on Amazon at some point, and listened to everyday in the Bible belt. 

Without anyone knowing this, I listened to this set of CD's over and over and over again, seeking some sort of existential reality in the deep, southern fried hell I found myself in.

My time at that fundamentalist college was the worst time of my life for sure and in my angst, anger and desperation, I turned to the only music I could relate to turning this tragic time in my life.

It was a hideous time for me. I was surrounded by strange, cowboy- boot wearing, gun-toting people in an even stranger Baptist world. 

I always felt like an evil person when I questioned if there should be gaudy, stained-glass depictions of currently living Southern Baptist leaders on the chapel windows. 

I also felt out of place when I questioned the president if the  ostentatious carcasses of animals shot in big game hunts should be in the President's office and student center...

I can relate to this song because I was most definitely estranged at that Southern Baptist school.  

I often felt like Albert Camus' "Meursault" in his epic book; The Stranger. I definitely felt bitterly out of place and estranged in that surreal, John Wayne emulating world of Southern Baptist fundamentalism...

My last semester there, I was told by that Southern Baptist school's administration that even though I was a major academic scholarship winner with a 4.0 GPA, was on the Dean's List and the President of the largest student led club on campus, that I was not welcome there anymore. 

I thank God that I had some respite from that storm in working and meeting people off campus and outside of the Southern Baptist world. Without them I would have went insane for sure.

I am thankful for the many friends on that campus. Despite the odds stacked against me, I graduated...

I  also thank God for  Morrissey and the Smiths, without them, I would most certainly be the first in the gang to die and this light would surely be out.

"There is a light that never goes out."


I Don't Care About George Bush's Socks

    Time for the Republican Party to 
Stop Playing Preppy Games and Make a Difference

    I'm Sorry my Republican and conservative friends, I just don't care about George Bush's socks. I know I am crushing dreams and bucking a national trend here and that George H.W. Bush's socks are being peddled on eBay, the National Review, the Republican National Committee for a good cause (I guess). Hopefully they are not being sold just to make another rich white dude just a little bit richer.

I am sorry if that seems a little crass and insensitive. And don't get me wrong, I am a life-long conservative and voted for Bush and Son every time they were on the Presidential ballot.

However, my dear, dear conservative friends, there are just more important things going on in America than buying George W. Bush's socks on the Home Shopping Network. Come on folks, Ferguson is burning, the people of New York City are up in arms about the Eric Garner case and here we are hawking George Bush's socks on eBay!

This is part of the problem my Republican friends. In the same way that the Roman Emperor Nero fiddled while Rome was burning, we are fiddling away out hard fought victories in the House and Senate while America is on fire and verge of collapse. 

There are infinitely bigger problems facing our party, the conservative movement in America and the entire country in general then concerning ourselves with petty and stupid things like George Bush's  argyle socks.

We have Obamacare to overturn and a national deficit spiraling out of control and endangering our future. We have ISIS to defeat and the problem of global terrorism to be concerned with. We have just no more time to spend on preppy foot accessories.

Maybe this is why we have lost the last two Presidential elections.  Maybe we are out of touch with the concerns of the average rank and file people that actually live, work and die in America. 

Maybe we need to start facing the reality that the Republican Party and conservative movement in the United Stated states seems like the party and movement for rich white people and appears threatening to many people across the country.

I know it's Christmas time folks, but please don't hate me if I play the Grinch and tell you that I just don't give a flying rip about George Bush's socks.

Sunday, December 7, 2014

The Importance of Prayer from Augustine of Hippo

Learning about Prayer from an Important Church Father

Traditionally, Sunday is the Christian Sabbath, a day where Christians of all denominations and theological stripes come together as the Body of Christ, to worship God and fellowship with one another. I know my blog is wild at times. I often focus on controversial things that are edgy and thought provoking. It is my intention to start a nationwide podcast called, "The Lee Enochs Show" (The Great American Podcast). I also plan to release to the public a few books I have been working on. The first one entitled, "Crisis in the Southern Baptist Convention," will focus on a massive controversy presently transpiring in America's largest Protestant denomination.

I want my new online radio show to be the most controversial podcast in America and generate a lot of publicity for my Libertarian and small government views. A long time ago, when I was living in Southern California, I had a very popular radio show on KBR and plan to launch this show nation wide in the days ahead. It will be a wild and controversial show that will focus on political, economic and cultural issues facing America.  This week on my podcast I want to focus on the continuing issues surrounding Ferguson, NYC, Cleveland, police brutality and give my take on the University of Virginia fraternity scandal.

However, on Sundays, I like to dial it down a notch. I like to take this day to focus on and worship God.

An important aspect of my life pertains to Christian theology and history. I am a big fan of studying church history and the doctrines of the historic Christian faith. One of my favorite authors in Christian history was Augustine of Hippo (354-434 AD).

                                                          Augustine on Prayer by Lee Enochs

      While some people today might view Augustine as a theologian that primary dealt with arcane and impenetrable doctrines such as original sin and predestination, these same individuals may be surprised to find out that Augustine wrote a considerable amount of material on prayer and mystical devotion to God. In 412 A.D., Augustine wrote a letter of correspondence to a widowed Roman noblewoman by the name of Anicia Faltonia Proba. This letter contains Augustine’s most comprehensive statement on prayer and postulates two main arguments. The first line of argumentation Augustine delineates is that before a person can pray with any degree of devotional authenticity, he or she must achieve a state of “spiritual desolation” before God irrespective of one’s financial status.  Secondly, Augustine argues that one should abandon worldly entertainments to achieve the “happy life” or a state of spiritual bliss. In this blog post, I will argue that Augustine’s two main points of argumentation in his letter to Anicia Faltonia Proba are congruent with apostolic teaching and have a direct relationship with apophatic and cataphatic theology (theologies of negative and positive statements about God).

Why Augustine Wrote Anicia Faltonia Proba

 As bishop of the North African city of Hippo Regius, located in present day Annaba Algeria,Augustine carried out a prodigious correspondence with a wide variety of people including members of the Roman aristocracy. One such prominent member of the upper division of the ancient Roman ruling class that he communicated with through writing was the wealthy window Anicia Faltonia Proba, the daughter of the extremely powerful and aristocratic Roman politician and pro-counsel Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius, the son of the renown, a Praefectus Urbi of Rome. Anicia Faltonia Proba’s grandmother was the famous Christian poet Faltonia Betitia Proba who wrote the classic Latin work Cento Vergilianus de laudibus Christ. Anicia Faltonia Proba was the young widow of the extremely wealthy and powerful Roman politician Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus (358-390 AD) who was the grandfather of the Roman Emperors Petronius Maximus (396-455 AD)and Anicius Olybrius (died 472 AD).

Proba wrote Augustine after the sack of Rome took place at the hand of Alaric I and the Visigoths on August 24, 410. Proba had to flee from Rome with her daughter in-law Anicia Luliana and granddaughter Demetrias to North Africa. She was a devout Christian who had already been in contact with such noted church leaders as John Chrysostom, the arch-bishop of Constantinople when she began her correspondence with Augustine on the subject of prayer. Augustine commences his letter to Proba by addressing her as “a Devoted Handmaid of God,” indicating that Augustine believed Proba to be a devout believer in Jesus Christ from an “illustrious, noble and wealthy” background, who had sincere and godly questions before the Lord. Augustine seemed to express a tremendous willingness to answer Proba’s questions regarding prayer due to her “pious desire.” Augustine said the he could not “express into words” how greatly he rejoiced upon her request for Augustine perceived her “great solicitude about this supremely important matter.”

Augustine argues that there could be no more important thing for Proba to consider during her widowhood but to, “continue in supplications night and day.” Augustine says that she should be “desolate, trust in God and continue in supplications day and night.” Augustine communicates to her that prayer should “occupy her heart and claim first place in it.” Augustine addresses the question of what sort of things should a person pray for and how a person should go about offering such a prayer before God. Augustine postulates the idea that irrespective of how fortuitous one’s materialistic circumstances may be, this affluence cannot achieve lasting peace and happiness outside devout commitment to Jesus Christ. Similarly, Augustine argues in his writing, On the Trinity, “Those moved by the reminder to convert again to the Lord from the state of deformity wherein worldly desires conformed them to this world have received from the Lord their reformation.” To Augustine, true spirituality is achieved partly through an abandonment of this world’s material possessions as seen in the following section of spiritual “desolation.”

Augustine on Spiritual Desolation

In his letter to Proba, Augustine argues that a person must aspire for a form of ecstatic spiritual “desolation” or a complete emptying of one’s personal desires and says that she should be “desolate, trust in God and continue in supplications day and night.” Augustine communicates to her that prayer should “occupy her heart and claim first place in it.” Augustine addresses the question of what sort of things should a person pray for and how a person should go about offering such a prayer before God. Augustine postulates the idea that irrespective of how fortuitous one’s materialistic circumstances may be, this affluence cannot achieve lasting peace and happiness outside devout commitment to Jesus Christ. Augustine argues that for Proba to have lasting spiritual contentment she must renounce her material and physical desires and desire a desolation or abandonment of all earthly cravings due to their inherent temporality.

Augustine quotes Jesus Christ in this respect and says that, “it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.” Augustine communicates to Proba that there can be no lasting fulfillment and contentment in this world and that unless one achieves a spiritual abandonment or desolation before God, “the life of the soul can have no portion.”Augustine’s view of “spiritual desolation” pertains primary not only to lack of financial and physical prosperity, but also to a deprivation of soul that comes from the quest for material possessions above spiritual sustenance. This realization of the futility of seeking earthly treasures above the eternal and abiding spiritual treasures that union with God alone can provide is ultimately a by-product of Augustine’s monergistic view of justification. That is, in diametrical opposition to a synergistic combination of human effort and divine aid as believed by his nemesis and theological opponent Pelagius, Augustine believed that all human beings are utterly depraved and enslaved to themselves and the vain things of this world until they experience saving and divine grace.

Augustine instructs Proba not to have the “the devout anxiety which makes it necessary to ask my counsel” and bemoan the fact that she lost her substantial fortune after Rome was sacked by the Visigoth’s in 410 AD. Augustine implies that poverty is in all actuality a far better physical condition than prosperity since it is, according to Augustine, exceedingly difficult for a wealthy person to enter the kingdom of God.  Augustine writes, “Wherefore when they were grieved, not for themselves, but for the whole human family, and were despairing of the salvation, for it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than a rich man to enter the kingdom of God. (Matthew 19:21-26).

Augustine argues that in the case of Proba’s wealthy family members and Roman compatriots that he caused them to be poor in a temporal and physical sense in order to make them wealthy spiritually. Augustine says that God, “Made them more truly rich by extinguishing their desire for riches through imparting to them the Holy Spirit.” Furthermore, Augustine asks Proba, “For how could you trust in Him if you were fixing your trust in uncertain riches?” Thus, in Augustine’s theological perspective, physical poverty is better than monetary riches since wealth often clouds one’s spiritual and eternal outlook. However, in diametrical counter distinction to physical wealth and worldly acquisition, physical poverty causes a sort of mystical union and devotional state that physical wealth could never bring.

Augustine on the Happy Life

Similarly, Augustine argues that in order to achieve a “true” and “happy” life, one needs to “account yourself desolate in this world, however great the prosperity of your lot may be.”Augustine ultimately argues that this “happy life” does not come through earthly consolation. Augustine says that true felicity and happiness only exists without our union with God and eternal values.Augustine argues that this “happy life” is ultimately and epistemologically the only “true life.” This life of sacred desolation and abandonment of this world riches alone can achieve devotional consolation before God. Augustine argues that the word and its riches are “darkness,” but God calls us to the light. He says, “In the darkness of this world, then in which pilgrims absent from the Lord as long as we walk by faith and not by sight (2 Corinthians 5:6-7), the Christian soul ought to feel itself desolate and continue in prayer and learn to fix the eye of faith on the word of the divine sacred Scriptures.”

Furthermore, Augustine argues that this “happy life,” or state of blissful union in the presence and purposes of God comes the light of divine revelation. Augustine writes, “For the ineffable source from which this lamp borrows its light is the Light which shines in darkness, but the darkness comprehends it not. The Light, in order to seeing, which our hearts must be purified by faith, for blessed are the pure in heart.” Augustine, in attempting to console Proba in her abject poverty and utter loss of material possessions, argues that the “happy life” is the think that must be sought above all earthy pursuits. Augustine says, “My aim has been for you feel, even while your family is spared you, and you can live as you would desire, you are desolate so long as you have not attained to that life in which is the true and abiding consolation.”

 Congruency with Apostolic Teaching

            Augustine believed, as did the New Testament apostles Paul and James, that material wealth often eviscerates a person’s passion to have a strong devotional life with God. Paul said, “For the love of money is the root of all sorts of evil, it is for this craving that many have wandered away from the faith and have pierced themselves through with many sorrows” (1 Timothy 6:10). Similarly, Paul said, that the rich should not place their confidence on uncertain riches but on God who, “provides everything richly that we might enjoy” (1 Timothy 6:17-18). The Apostle James was even more vehement in his denunciation of the rich and the abundance of their material possessions (See James 2:5-7 and 5:1-6).

It is clear from these passages of Scriptures that the Apostles saw the rich as potential exploiters and the poor as in a better spiritual position before God. To the apostolic writers, wealth and material possessions often had the ability to cloud one’s spiritual discernment and devotion to God, since these items of materialism are things that are “seen.” However, the Apostle Paul placed a positive emphasis on the “things that are not seen.” Paul wrote, “While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen; for the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal” (2 Corinthians 4:18).  Paul seemed ambivalent at best about the “riches of this world” and ultimately placed an emphasis on acquiring the spiritual and non-temporal “riches of Christ” instead. Paul said, “Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his way” (Romans 11:33). Also see; Romans 11:12, Ephesians 2:7, 3:8, and Philippians 4:27 and Colossians 1:27-2:2.

Relationship with Apophatic and Cataphatic Theologies

 In contrasting the benefits of poverty from the detrimental effects of wealth, Augustine believed in a sort of apopthatic negation by postulating that a state of wealth ultimately brings true poverty and a state of physical poverty brings the desired state of spiritual wealth.  To Augustine, poverty is ultimately good and wealth is generally bad. Similarly, to Augustine, poverty brings true riches while wealthy brings a tragic state of spiritual poverty. In Augustine’s thought, physical desolation brings about spiritual consolation and materialistic indulgence brings about a state of spiritual desolation. However, in diametrical counter distinction to aphophatic description of God, Augustine seemed to be more accustomed to speaking about God in a Cataphatic manner. That is, Augustine seemed to generally engage in the practice of using positive terminology about the person and essence of God. Augustine’s use of positive descriptions about God seem to have historical and ecclesiastical precedence in the life, ministry and teachings of such noted Catholic theologians as Anselm of Canterbury and Gregory Nazianzus. This “cataphatic” or positive description of God was in diametrical opposition and counter distinction to the theology of negation employed by Neo-platonic author who went by the name of Dionysius the Areopagite and the author of the Cloud of Unknowing who both encouraged their readers to throw off their preconceived understanding about God and encounter God through that which is unknown.


In this blog post, I examined a letter Augustine of Hippo send to the window Anicia Faltonia Proba. This letter contains Augustine’s comprehensive statement on prayer and discusses Augustine’s conception of “spiritual desolation.” Augustine argues that one should abandon worldly entertainments to achieve the “happy life” or spiritual bliss before God. I argued that Augustine’s views on wealth and poverty are congruent with apostolic teaching and argued that Augustine’s letter to Proba contained aspects of both apopthatic negation and cataphatic (positive) description of God. Augustine of Hippo’s letter to Proba and the theology therein is both sublime and practical in every respect. Augustine’s letter gave consolation to a widow who experienced abject despair.












[1] Knowledge of God achieved through negation. From ἀπόφασις, ἀπόφημι – apophēmi, "to deny.”
[2] Knowledge of God achieved through positive description of God. Cataphatic theology was denied by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite who thought such positive descriptions of God were limiting.
[3] Theodor Mommsen, William P. Dickson, and F. Haverfield, The Provinces of the Roman Empire, from Caesar to Diocletian, 2 vols. (Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1974), 345-350.
[4] J. B. Bury et al., The Cambridge Ancient History, 12 vols. (Cambridge Eng.: The University Press, 1923), 10-21.
[5] Jane Stevenson, Women Latin Poets : Language, Gender, and Authority, from Antiquity to the Eighteenth Century (Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 65.
[6] S. Wise Bauer, The History of the Medieval World : From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade, 1st ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010), 68.
[7] A. H. M. Jones, J. R. Martindale, and J. Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge Eng.: University Press, 1971), 736-740.
[8] Augustine’s Letter 130 (AD 412) to Proba found in Philip Schaff, ed., “Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers,” First series, vol. 1, 1887. Christian Classics Ethereal Library pp. 997.
[9] Ibid.,997.
[10] Ibid.,997.
[11] Ibid., 997-998.
[12] Louis K. Dupré and James A. Wiseman, Light from Light : An Anthology of Christian Mysticism, 2nd ed. (New York: Paulist Press, 2001), 67.
[13] Ibid., 998.
[14] Ibid., 998.
[15] Ibid.,998.
[16] Augustine, John A. Mourant, and William J. Collinge, Four Anti-Pelagian Writings, The Fathers of the Church (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1992), 13-33.
[17] Augustine’s Letter 130 (AD 412) to Proba found in Philip Schaff, ed., “Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers,” First series, vol. 1, 1887. Christian Classics Ethereal Library pp. 997.
[18] Ibid., 997.
[19] Ibid.,998.
[20] Ibid., 998.
[21] Ibid., 999.
[22] Ibid.,998.
[23] Ibid., 1000.
[24] Ibid., 1000.
[25] Ibid., 1000-1001.
[26] Vladimir Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church (Crestwood, N.Y.: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1976), 26.
[27] Anselm, R. W. Southern, and Franciscus Salesius Schmitt, Memorials of St. Anselm, Auctores Britannici Medii Aevi, (London,: Published for the British Academy by Oxford U.P., 1969), 35-43.
[28] Dupré and Wiseman, 79-93.
[29] Ibid., 247-264.
[30] Ibid., 81-87.